Today,Mongolia has more than 2, 8 million population and population density is very low,. One person per 1.6 square km.
Mongolian ethnic and linguistic group: 81.5% of the population is Khalkha Mongols who live all over Mongolia.
Oirat Mongols- they are live in Western Mongolia, Uvs, Hovd, Byan-Olgii province and subdivided into several ethnic groups: Bayat (2.1 %), Dorvod (2.8%) Oold (0.6%), Zahkchin (1.3%).
Altai Mongols: They live in Altai Mountain range in Western Mongolia, in Hovd province.
Altai Uriankhai Mongols (1.1%). Torgut (0.5%)
Northern Mongols: They live in Dornod, Khentii, Selenge and Khovsgol province.
Buryat (1.7%), Barga (1.05%),
Mongolia’s Turks: Khazakh (4.3%) live in Bayan-Olgii and Hovd province of western Mongolia. Kazakhs of the Altai traditionally have hunted from horseback with trained golden eagles on their wrists and greyhounds slung across the saddle--both to be launched at game-- and pictures of eagle-bearing Kazakhs are common in Mongolian tourist literature.
Mongolian Language and Literature.
About 90 percent of the populace speaks one of several dialects of the Mongol language. Mongol is an Altaic language, related to the Turkic languages, such as Uzbek, Turkish, and Kazakh, and more distantly to Korean and perhaps, in the opinion of some linguists, to Japanese. Except for the dialect of the Buryat Mongols who predominantly inhabit the area around Lake Baykal in Siberia and the dialects of scattered isoglosses in Mongolia, all dialects of Mongol spoken in Mongolia are readily understood by native speakers of the language.
The Khalkha Mongols are the largest element of the population. Khalkha Mongol is the standard language; it is taught in the schools and is used for all official business. The written language is based on the Khalkha of the Ulaanbaatar region, and when Mongol script was replaced by a Cyrillic alphabet between 1941 and 1946, the Russian Cyrillic was modified to suit the phonetic structure of Khalkha. Another 12 percent of the population spoke a variety of western or northern Mongol dialects, such as Dorbet, Zakchin, Buryat, or the southeastern Dariganga. Speakers of these dialects were concentrated in their ancestral territories in far western or northwestern Mongolia in Hovd, Uvs, and Hovsgol aymags, or along the Chinese frontier in the southeast.
Bayan-Olgiy is a largely Kazakh administrative unit, where the Kazakh language is used in the primary schools and in local administrative offices. Today more than 10 million people speak Mongolian. They live in Mongolia, Buriat republic of Russian federation, Inner Mongolia in China, Shingjan and Gansu regions.
Second Language: Russian is spoken by many graduates with many Mongolians formally educated in Russia. English is second language now. German is spoken many graduates, little Spanish and Chinese not widely understood.